The Secret Guide to Cooking Perfectly For Your Family

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Most likely, the earliest techniques of processing cereal grains included dry roasting or parching of the seeds that were collected. Taste, texture and digestibility later were enhanced by cooking whole or broken grains with water, making gruel or porridge. It was a simple step before baking an opaque gruel on a hot stone creating basic flat bread. The Mexican tortilla is made from processed corn. Indian chapati which is usually made from wheat, are two more varieties of flat bread. Baking techniques have improved since the advent of a bakeware that is enclosed as well as ovens, allowing for more dense cake or loaves that were baked. At first there was yeast spoilage in gruels and doughs that were kept for several hours before baking. This caused the phenomenon of fermentation. Microbiologically-induced changes to bread's structure weren't completely detrimental. However, some of these effects were considered to be desirable. Traditional methods for making bread loaves with leaven resulted from gaining control over the process. Early baked products were made from mixed seeds, with an emphasis on barley, but wheat flour, because of its ability to withstand fermentation, became the preferred cereal among the various cultural groups capable of advancing in the art of cooking to produce leavened loafs of bread. Early civilizations saw baking and brewing were closely linked. A thick gruel can be fermented into a dough that is suitable for baking. However, a fine Mash could produce a beer. Both of these methods require knowledge of the "mysteries" of fermentation, as well as the availability of grain. The craftsmen of the baking and brewing trades were taught that wheat is the best gas grills under $1000 for baking, and barley perfect for brewing. The Egyptians were the ones to be responsible for the first leavening technique to be used around 2600 BCE. They employed methods that were similar to the ones we use today. They had a supply of sour dough, a crude culture of desirable fermenting organisms, and utilized portions of this dough to inoculate new doughs. The Egyptian baking industry produced more than 50 kinds of bread with doughs that were made from flour together with salt, water, and leaven. They also used different flavoring ingredients like sesame seeds, poppy seed and camphor to alter the shape of the bread. The bread that was discovered in tombs are softer and more coarse than modern bread. The Egyptians created the first ovens. The oldest known examples are cylindrical vessels made of baked Nile clay. The clay is tapered at the top to give the appearance of a cone and separated inside by a horizontal shelflike partition. The lower section of the vessel is called the firebox and the upper is the baking chamber. Through a hole on the top of the section, the dough was placed in the baking chamber. For the first two or three centuries after the founding of Rome, baking remained an everyday skill, with only a few changes in equipment or processing methods. Pliny, the Elder says that there were no bakers until the middle century of the bce period in Rome. As the wealthiest families grew and women wanting to stay away from the tedious and frequent baking began to seek out professional bakers. They were usually slaves who were freed. The breads were made by hand in an spheroidal form, usually weighing about a pound, were cooked in a beehive-shaped oven that was fired by wood. Panis artopticius was an example of a bread that was prepared on a spit. panis testuatis cooked in an earthen vessel. Although Roman professional bakers made technological advances, most were of minor importance, and others were simply introductions of previous developments. Marcus Vergilius, sometimes spelled Virgilius, Eurysaces was the first to design a mechanical dough mixer. He employed a huge stone basin and wooden paddles that were powered by a donkey , or horse moving in circles. The paddles kneaded the flour, leaven and water mixture. The creation of guilds was made possible through the miller-bakers in Rome. They were organized by the supervision of the Flavians to form a "college" which had the rules of work and regulations imposed by the government. The business became mandatory and hereditary , and the baker was a civil employee with only a few freedoms. The advances in baking technology of earlier times were lost during the first Middle Ages. Bakers returned to the mechanical equipment that were used by the ancient Egyptians or to less advanced methods. In the second half of the Middle Ages, the institution of guilds was revived. A number of years of apprenticeship were required before one could be admitted to the guild; typically, an intermediate status of apprentice was replaced by full membership (master). Technology advancements have led to the development of bakers' guilds. A 13th-century French writer listed 20 varieties of bread, varying in shape the bread's shape, flavorings, cooking method and the quality of the meal used. The quality and size of the bread were managed by guild regulations. Bread was made at home, regardless of whether it wasn't in the city. In the medieval period of England Rye was the most important ingredient in bread eaten by the poor. It was often mixed with meal made from other cereals or legume seeds. In 1865, white bread be cheaper than brown bread. This was the time when advances in baking technology were beginning to grow rapidly due to the advancement of technology in general. Ingredients that were more pure and improved functional qualities were developed, along with equipment reducing the need for individual skill and the need for the hand-handling of doughs for bread. The batch processing process was replaced by continuous processes that automated shaping, mixing, shaping, fermentation and baking. The enrichment of bread and other bakery products with minerals and vitamins was a major accomplishment of the baking industry at the turn of the century.


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