The Secret Guide to Cooking Perfectly for Your Family


The initial processing of cereal grains was probably dry roasting or parching grains that were collected. Flavour, texture, and four burner gas grill - www.hrlsearch.Net - digestibility were later improved by cooking whole or broken grains with waterto form gruel or porridge. It was a short process to bake a layer of viscous greek on a hot stone, producing basic flat bread. Modern versions of flat bread include the Mexican tortilla, made of processed corn, and the chapati from India which is usually made of wheat. The development of baking equipment enclosed and ovens enabled bakers to bake more dense loaves or cakes. The first time yeast spoilage was discovered in gruels and doughs that were stored for a long time before baking. This resulted in fermentation. Some of the consequences of changes caused by microbiology were thought of as desirableand an gradual gaining control over the process led to traditional ways of making leavened bread loaves. Early baked products were composed of mixed seeds with a predominance of barley, however wheat flour, as a result of its ability to withstand fermentation, eventually became the preferred cereal among all the different groups of cultures capable of advancing in the art of cooking for making leavened bread. Brewing and baking were closely connected in early civilizations. A thick gruel was fermented into an ideal dough for baking. However, a thin mash can produce a beer. Both processes required knowledge of the "mysteries" of fermentation as well as a supply of grain. The crafters of the baking and brewing trades learned that wheat is best for baking, while barley is best for brewing. At 2600 bce, the Egyptians, credited with the first use of leavening, were making bread in a similar way in way to the ones we have the present. They kept sour dough which was a crude culture that had desirable fermentation organisms, in stock and used some of it to inoculate new doughs. The Egyptian baking industry produced more than 50 varieties of bread using doughs made from flour together with salt, water, and leaven. They also utilized different flavoring ingredients like sesame seeds poppy seed, camphor and sesame to alter the shape of the bread. The bread samples found in tombs are softer and coarser than the modern bread. Egyptians invented the first ovens. The oldest examples of this are cylindrical vessels made of baked Nile clay. The clay is tapered towards the top, giving an oval shape, then divided inside by a horizontal shelflike partition. The lower section was the firebox, the upper part is the baking chamber. The dough was placed in the baking area through an opening on the top. For the first two or three centuries following the founding of Rome baking remained a domestic skill with few changes in equipment or processing methods. Pliny, the Elder states that there were no bakers until the middle of the century BCE in Rome. As the wealthiest families grew and women wanting to stay away from frequent and tedious bread-making began to patronize professional bakers, typically freed slaves. The bread was made by hand , and weighed approximately 1 pounds. The bread was cooked in an oven that was fired by wood. Panis artopticius was one of the varieties that was cooked over a spit panis testuatis cooked in an earthen vessel. Although Roman professional bakers introduced technological advances, most were not significant, and others were simply an introduction of developments from earlier. The first mechanical dough mixer is believed to be the work of Marcus Vergilius (sometimes spelled Virgilius) Eurysaces, a freed slave from Greek origin, was large stone bowls where wooden paddles powered by horses or donkey circling in circles, kneaded the dough mix of flour, leaven, and water. The miller-bakers' guilds of Rome began to be institutionalized. In the 2nd century CE, under the leadership of the Flavians, they were organized as a "college" with work rules and regulations set by officials from the government. The business became mandatory and hereditary and the baker became a public servant who had limited freedom. The baking technology advancements of earlier times were lost during the first Middle Ages. Bakers returned to the mechanical tools that were used by the ancient Egyptians or to less technological methods. However, later in the Middle Ages the institution of guilds was renewed and expanded. Before a person could be admitted into the guild, they needed to have completed several years of apprenticeship. In some cases, a position called journeyman was used as a bridge between apprenticeship as well as full membership (master). Technological advances that made a difference brought about the rise of bakers guilds. A 13th-century French writer outlined 20 kinds of bread, varying in shape the bread's shape, flavorings, cooking method, and what was the quality of the meal. Quality and size were strictly determined by guild rules. However, outside of cities bread was usually baked in the kitchen of the family. In the medieval period of England Rye was the most important ingredient of bread consumed by the poor. It was usually mixed by meal made of different cereals or leguminous seeds. It was only in 1865 that white bread have a lower price than brown bread. The advancements in baking technologies began to increase in speed, thanks to the advancement of technology in general. Ingredients with higher purity and better functional properties were developed, in addition to equipment reducing the need for individual skills and eliminating hand manipulation of bread doughs. Automatization of mixing, transfer and shaping, fermentation and baking techniques began to replace batch processes with continuous processes. The mid-20th century witnessed the development of bread-making as well as other bakery products with vitamins and minerals.

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